EARLY CHILDHOOD--- SOCIAL
Is day care good or bad for children? Or is this too
simple a way of putting it?
(see more explicit answer below )
1. Short-Term Effects of Child Care
The child care research literature presents no consistent
evidence that child care per se is harmful to child development, regardless
of the age at which a child begins out-of-home care. It does,however, indicate
that variations in the quality of child care are important determinants
of the impact of child care. Higher quality child care is associated with
better cognitive and social development both while children are in child
care and during their first few years of school.
(VERY) BRIEF SUMMARY OF RESEARCH ON THE EFFECTS OF CHILD
In no particular order whatsoever
- Lower child:teacher ratios are better. The early studies
of child care were done in Head Start and child care centers generally
examined programs which had seven or fewer children per teacher or caregiver.
Few programs today have ratios that good. )-:
- Research indicates that putting your child into HIGH
QUALITY child care has no negative effects and may even have some positive
effects. The most frequently noted positive effect is better socialization,
especially, better ability to interact with other children.
- Most parents cannot afford child care of the kind of
quality which was used for these research studies. In assessing effects
of day care, many model programs were staffed by teachers with at least
a bachelor's degree, if not a masters, had low child:teacher ratios, low
staff turnover and a research and theory-based developmentally appropriate
curriculum with adequate materials.
- In contrast, most daycare providers have less than
a college education, and day care centers have extremely high turnover,
as a rule.
- The research which did find negative effects of day
care, primarily done by Jay Belsky and his colleagues, suggested that day
care may have negative effects on attachment (return to the page on infant
social development if you need a refresher on what attachment is all about).
These negative effects were noted when the mothers returned to work full
time before the child was one year old. So, even the negatives were quite
qualified, in that day care MAY have an effect on attachment IF the mother
works full-time AND IF the child is very young.
- It is also true, however, that disadvantaged children seem
to benefit the most from preschool programs such as Head Start. Children
who attend Head Start are less likely to fail a grade in school and less
likely to be placed in special education. For middle class children, the
long-term benefits of Head Start are small or non-existent. It has been
suggested that this is because Head Start provides experiences such as
story hour, play with toys which teach shape, color and number, songs which
teach number and patterns, etc. Middle class children usually get these
experiences at home, while many disadvantaged children do not.
So, in general, good preschool programs which children
begin in early childhood (NOT infancy) seem to have no negative effect
and may even have a positive effect. It is less clear what effect the average
program, with high turnover and relatively undertrained (and underpaid)
staff has on children. I rather suspect that limited research is done in
that area because we may not want to know what we would find out, and that
we, as a nation, do not have the will to devote the resources necessary
to our children to give them all, or even the majority, a very good preschool
experience. That is just my personal opinion.
For guidelines on selecting a good preschool program,
refer to page 253 in your textbook.
For the OTHER major factor in
social development (that is, parents) click here.
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